Background[edit | edit source]

  • Measurement in education for students used in courses.

Insights[edit | edit source]

A rubric is a scoring criteria that is used to assess or evaluate student work. Rubrics differ from rating scales in their detailed descriptions for each quality level, along with their ability to assess multiple (3-5) criteria. A rubric is similar to a score awarded by a gymnastics judge in that it describes various qualitative levels of performance on a specific performance or product. A well-written rubric actually presents a picture of what the final performance or product looks like.

History[edit | edit source]

Rubrics were designed to replace grades and not to coexist with them. The idea behind rubrics was to remove the stigma associated with an “F” and to change the perception of assessment from “trying” to “achieving.” Rubrics were designed to be a straight- forward assessment of student work without the emotion attached to grading.

Results[edit | edit source]

Rubrics provide descriptions of various levels of performance for a specific assessment. Rubrics can take the form of any number of levels, but a range of 1 through 6 (with 6 being ideal and 4 being minimum competency), or 1 through 4 (with 4 being ideal and 3 being minimum competency) is most common. A rubric with a range of 1 to 5 is typically not used to avoid comparisons between rubrics and grades (A, B, C, D, F). The highest score for a rubric represents exemplary work and should be hard for the students to achieve. If the student’s performance is between two levels, his or her score is the lower number. It is also possible to forgo the numeric assignments and to simply include a descriptive analysis of the student’s performance or product.

Creating Rubrics[edit | edit source]

Creating rubrics is not an easy task. With practice, teachers can get better at writing rubrics.

Holistic or Analytic Rubics[edit | edit source]

  • A rubric that covers all aspects of the performance or product is a holistic rubric.
  • A separate rubric for each aspect or dimension of the performance or product is called analytic rubrics.

Five-step assessment development process:[edit | edit source]

  1. . Identify the standard.
  2. . Choose the assessment tool.
  3. . State criteria for competence.
  4. . Describe levels of quality.
  5. . Develop samples of student work at each level of quality.

Describe Levels of Quality within the rubic[edit | edit source]

A rubic has either four or six levels, not five.

A rubic includes a description of the quality criteria for every level.

In a 6 point rubic, level 4 is written first, then levels 6, 3, 1, 2, and 5.

For a 4-point rubric, level 3 is written first, then levels 4, 1, and 2.

Six point rubic[edit | edit source]

Points Quality
6 mastery Can demonstrate the correct technique consistently in an open environment.
5 mature motor skills Demonstrates well beyond competency. Example: correct technique while generating additional force (distance) and accuracy.
4 minimum competency Includes everything within state criteria for competence.
3 close to competence describes what being close to competence looks like
2 intermediate motor skill describes the first step toward competency
1 beginning developmental levels beginning to learn the skill or concept


Four point rubic[edit | edit source]

Points Quality
4 beyond competency. mature motor skills and mastery Demonstrates well beyond competency. Example: correct technique while generating additional force (distance) and accuracy.
3 minimum competency Includes everything within state criteria for competence.
2 intermediate motor skill, getting near to competence describes the first step toward competency
1 beginning developmental levels beginning to learn the skill or concept

The minimum competency level (a 4 on a 6-point scale and a 3 on a 4-point scale) includes everything written under “State Criteria for Competence.” Level 3 describes what being close to competence looks like, while level 2 describes the first step toward competency. For, Demonstrates a mature motor skill, these two levels are derived from the intermediate and beginning developmental levels for the motor skill. These descriptions are found in the motor development research (Gallahue & Cleland-Donnelly, 2007).

  • Levels 5 and 6 describe performance beyond competency.
    • For example, level 5 may require the student to demonstrate the correct technique while generating additional force (distance) and accuracy.
    • Level 6 may require the student to demonstrate the correct technique consistently in an open environment.
  • Level 1 simply notes that the student is beginning to learn the skill or concept.

Develop Samples of Student Work[edit | edit source]

Step 5 in the process of creation of rubics involves the development of samples of student work that illustrate each level of quality. These samples are referred to as “anchors.” This samples help with establishing the reliability of the assessment, since other teachers and coaches that do the evaluations of students can see “real” examples. In an ideal setting, guardians and administrators should be able to decode the anchors and performances as well. Additionally, samples show students what is required for each level of achievement.

Actual student work may be used as samples.

The creation of a catalog of anchors to lends examples for the rubics should begin on the first day of participation. Waiting for the end of the term and waiting for final testing might yield few or zero examples of the beginning and interlocutory steps. Video clips and photo collages of each level of quality work best.

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